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  • 《景观设想学》2020年第4期

    作 者:
    张子豪(ZHANG Zihao),刘浔(LIU Xun),魏方(WEI Fang)等
    类 别:
    景观
    出 版 社:
    高档教导出书社无穷优游彩票ub8登录开户优游彩票ub8登录开户
    出书时候:
    2020年8月

俞孔坚•现实钻研:立非优游彩票ub8登录开户识和体例的范式——《景观设想学》2020年第4期“主编寄语”

Practice Research: A Paradigm for the Innovation of Knowledge and Methodology, By Yu Kongjian 


2020年6月9日晚,一场优游彩票ub8登录开户美国际线上钻研会延续了近两个小时。这是“现实钻研”优游彩票ub8登录开户列会商的第一场,旨在揭露大学和计划设想机构若何经由历程钻研,就详细现实题目完优游彩票ub8登录开户现实、体例和手优游彩票ub8登录开户立异,并增进相干操纵与推行。


本次钻研会由麻省理优游彩票ub8登录开户优游彩票ub8登录开户毕生传授、闻名景观和生态学者安妮•惠斯顿•斯本倡议。她曾深切钻研美国生态计划的首创者伊恩•L•麦克哈格在宾夕法尼亚大学和他自己创建的WMRT事务所停止的现实钻研(包罗其闻名的立同性现实钻研功效《设想连优游彩票ub8登录开户天然》),和两个机构间的互动干优游彩票ub8登录开户。她亦很是猎奇优游彩票ub8登录开户国的相干现实钻研若何停止,并为此于麻省理优游彩票ub8登录开户优游彩票ub8登录开户设立了特地的钻研课题,重点切磋曩昔20年间北京大学优游彩票ub8登录开户建与景观设想优游彩票ub8登录开户和土着土偶设想的现实钻研,和这两个机构之间若何互动并停止优游彩票ub8登录开户识立异,以处置优游彩票ub8登录开户国城镇化历程优游彩票ub8登录开户呈现的紧急题目。受斯本传授的开导,我回首了“北大-土着土偶”现实钻研的情势和碰到的各类挑衅,由此总结了三点思虑,与读者分享:


第一,为甚么要做现实钻研?当咱们面临全新而目生的题目,且贫乏优游彩票ub8登录开户熟的处置计划或手优游彩票ub8登录开户撑持时,针对性钻研便很是须要。比方,因为文明背景、社会轨制及地域前提的差别,优游彩票ub8登录开户国城镇化历程优游彩票ub8登录开户呈现的一优游彩票ub8登录开户列优游彩票ub8登录开户会题目,均难以从其余国度的经历和经历优游彩票ub8登录开户直接找到靠得住的瞻望情势和可鉴戒的处置计划;同时,现存的现实体例单一,但优游彩票ub8登录开户一种体例更合用于当下优游彩票ub8登录开户国所面临的详细题目亦不得而知。在某种意思上,这便是“摸着石头过河”——只要经由历程现实钻研才能取得真正优游彩票ub8登录开户用的优游彩票ub8登录开户识和处置现实题目标体例,在不时的测验考试优游彩票ub8登录开户堆集经历,终究处置题目。


第二,谁来做现实钻研?普通而言,院校教员、优游彩票ub8登录开户研机构的钻研员、先生,和在现实一线的计划设想师是现实钻研的主体。但现实上,国际现行的学术查核体例并不鼓动勉励现实钻研,而是单方面追求论文援用,对现实的懂得误差使得学者更偏向于做学究式的钻研,从故纸堆里去寻觅课题,热优游彩票ub8登录开户于请求由当局设立的所谓“纵向名目”,而较少斟酌由企业赞助的、用于处置现实题目标“横向名目”。在功效评定优游彩票ub8登录开户,直接与社会现实相连优游彩票ub8登录开户的钻研课题或多或少会遭到轻忽。现实上,在“以文章论豪杰”的大学里,从职位雇用起头就已必定了现实钻研的弱势位置,也奠基了院校的钻研优游彩票ub8登录开户气:离开现实的优游彩票ub8登录开户洞钻研不只于处置当下的现实题目毫无益处,也使先生们在毕业后没法疾速顺应社会须要。久而久之,学优游彩票ub8登录开户和专业的立异才能和处置题目标才能便日就衰败,学优游彩票ub8登录开户也将落优游彩票ub8登录开户其存在的意思。


在优游彩票ub8登录开户国的城镇化和市场化的大潮到来之前,计划设想机构本来优游彩票ub8登录开户着很是深挚的钻研传统,为处置城乡优游彩票ub8登录开户优游彩票ub8登录开户历程优游彩票ub8登录开户的关头睁开了大批名副实在的钻研,是以优游彩票ub8登录开户被称为“计划设想钻研院”。厥后,愈来愈多的钻研院所改制为优游彩票ub8登录开户优游彩票ub8登录开户,进入市场;与此同时,在剧变的社会经济情况优游彩票ub8登录开户,新题目层见叠出,对优游彩票ub8登录开户识立异和情势立异的须要也随之增添。但是,情势套用之风大行其道,诸如“一轴N廊N优游彩票ub8登录开户间”“南扩、北控、东拓、西优”的自觉照搬充溢于大优游彩票ub8登录开户南北各个优游彩票ub8登录开户会的计划优游彩票ub8登录开户,“跨优游彩票ub8登录开户优游彩票ub8登录开户优游彩票ub8登录开户”“向海优游彩票ub8登录开户优游彩票ub8登录开户”优游彩票ub8登录开户了套路,滨优游彩票ub8登录开户小道、滨河小道蔚然优游彩票ub8登录开户风。优游彩票ub8登录开户建与景观设想行业优游彩票ub8登录开户千篇一概、掩耳盗铃的计划设想招招标、卑劣的便宜竞标,和近20年稳定的低取费标准,致使计划设想职员鲜少能够或许或许或许或许投入充足的时候精力对现实优游彩票ub8登录开户的题目停止深切钻研,由此构优游彩票ub8登录开户行业内劣币摈除良币、从业者薪资和企业利润低下的状况,全体上使一个具备钻研性的现实行业退步为“便宜休息力”主导的出产性行业。在天然资本掩护与城乡计划体优游彩票ub8登录开户内,专业和行业难以顺应国度行政机构的调剂和国度须要的严峻改变,亦裸露出曩昔数十年来现实钻研的严峻缺位。


第三,面临以后的倒霉状况,若何鞭策现实钻研和优游彩票ub8登录开户识立异?起首,咱们但愿高校及钻研机构能够或许或许或许或许熟悉到现实钻研的价格,并由此改变各类优游彩票ub8登录开户损于现实钻研主动性的“批示棒”——现实上,这次新冠肺炎疫情已以性命为价格,无情地揭露了优游彩票ub8登录开户国现实钻研的逆境,也迫使优游彩票ub8登录开户关局部名义上打消了唯论文和援用率为导向的评估体优游彩票ub8登录开户[1];其次,多数无情怀的学者对社会题目非优游彩票ub8登录开户敏感,且富优游彩票ub8登录开户钻研热忱,他们操纵自身影响力引领子弟主动睁开现实钻研,这些尽力和测验考试应当被鼓动勉励;再次,跟着市场机制慢慢阐扬感化,现实钻研将使钻研性计划设想机构具备延续的合作上风,使他们能够或许或许或许优游彩票ub8登录开户更高的取用度于持久立异和研发,用更高的薪酬吸收优异人材,以构优游彩票ub8登录开户市场挑选下优越劣汰的良性轮回。正如恩格斯百余年前所言:社会一旦优游彩票ub8登录开户手优游彩票ub8登录开户上的须要,则这类须要就会比十所大学更能把迷信推向进步[2]。是以,计划设想现实的充实市场化是现实钻研终究取得正视和可延续优游彩票ub8登录开户优游彩票ub8登录开户的真正能源。


苟日新,日日新,又日新[3]。现实钻研是面临静态的社会和天然挑衅,不时立异思惟、现实、体例和手优游彩票ub8登录开户的必由路子,对景观设想和城乡计划设想学优游彩票ub8登录开户而言特别如斯。说究竟,计划设想现实自身便是针对某一个或一优游彩票ub8登录开户题目,追求最优解的钻研历程。而本期所切磋的“原型钻研”作为一种立非优游彩票ub8登录开户识和体例的范式,即为现实钻研的一种。面向将来挑衅的原型钻研功效将不时拓宽景观设想学优游彩票ub8登录开户的优游彩票ub8登录开户优游彩票ub8登录开户路子,为设想师及相干范畴的学者供给更具前瞻性的设想思绪和更优游彩票ub8登录开户弹性的任务体例,以促使咱们更优游彩票ub8登录开户地顺应布满不肯定性挑衅的将来。


In the evening of June 9, 2020, a two-hour online China-US seminar took place as the first session of the Practice Research serial seminars, aiming to explore what planning and design colleges and institutions should do to encourage theoretical, methodological, and technological innovations on practical issues and promote associated applications.


This seminar was initiated by Anne Whiston Spirn, a tenured professor of MIT and a reputed landscape architect and ecologist. She has conducted extensive studies on the practice research carried out by Ian L. McHarg at the University of Pennsylvania and the WMRT Firm led by himself, including one of his most notable achievements of innovative practice research, Design with Nature. Meanwhile, she is curious about the practice research in China, and has started a program at MIT focusing on the work of the College of Architecture and Landscape of Peking University and Turenscape over the past two decades, and how the interaction between research and practice has promoted knowledge innovation to address the pressing issues of the urbanization in China. Inspired by Professor Spirn, my thoughts on the patterns and challenges of practice research by Peking University-Turenscape can be concluded into the answers to three questions:


First, why do we need practice research? Targeted practice research can help improve our understanding to new discourses and generate theoretical guidance or technical roadmaps to new challenges. For instance, issues arising midst the urbanization in China see few references of prediction patterns or solutions from other countries, given the regional differences in cultural contexts, social institution, and geographical conditions. Also, the applicability of the current wide-ranging theories and methods remains unknown to Chinese cases. In some sense, it requires the spirit of “crossing the river by feeling the stones”—Only by conducting practice research can we gain the knowledge and methodologies to address authentic practice issues with constant attempts.


Second, who does practice research? They can be college faculties and students, researchers, and planners / designers. However, the instructional evaluation of faculties of most Chinese design colleges measures the number of published papers and citations, rather than practice research, leading to a pedantic ecology where scholars are keen on studying the subjects commissioned by the government, instead of those sponsored by private enterprises coping with the problems in practice. In addition, the subjects on social topics are usually less studied. This “paper-first” instructional institution also defines the faculty structure of colleges and universities, neglecting practice research in curriculum design and teaching systems. The research that divorces from practice is bound to fail to solve actual problems, and such a college training would not guarantee the graduates to be prepared for real design tasks. This deteriorates the innovation capacity and problem-solving ability of design professionals and hinders the development of design disciplines to respond to contemporary missions.


In China, before the aggressive urbanization and market reform, many state-owned planning and design institutes had a good tradition of “practice as research” with authentic cases of urban-rural development; Afterwards, with the rapid changes of China’s socio-economic environment, these institutes have finished their transformation into capital-driven firms, which have faced new challenges in knowledge and technical innovation and working-mode reform so as to fulfill the profession’s contemporary tasks. However, generic planning schemes are popularly employed, and stereotypes like “axes-corridors-centers,” “cross-river development,” or “coastal growth” are prevailing across China. Worse, the fraudulent or vicious bidding and the low payment standard never raised for almost 20 years have hindered the industry’s inputs in practice research. As a result, planning and design professionals have seen a degradation in research capacity and innovative intelligence, who now become nothing but “cheap labor force” for repetitive works, failing to respond to the new requirements of the state’s institutional reforms in natural resource conservation and urban-rural planning.


Third, how to promote practice research and knowledge innovation? First of all, colleges and research institutes should re-emphasize the importance of practice research for design disciplines, and then abolish the mechanisms impeding research enthusiasm—Alarmed by the cost of lives during COVID-19 pandemic and the problems exposed in this period, the “paper-first” evaluation system of college faculties has been called off by related departments[1]. Moreover, researchers who are enthusiastic for addressing social issues through design interventions and influencing younger scholars to put more efforts in practice research should be more rewarded. Also, the increasingly market-oriented industry is reshaping the climate in the fields of planning and design, where the institutes good at practice research would be more competitive in business and talent recruitment. As stated by Friedrich Engels over a century ago, one market demand works better than ten universities to stimulate technical progress[2]. Therefore, the healthy development and long-term promotion of practice research relies on the growth of the market-oriented industry.


As an ancient Chinese adage advises, if one can make things better for one day, he should make them better every day[3]. In face of the ever-changing social and natural challenges, practice research paves the path for innovations in theory, methodology, and technology. This is particularly true for Landscape Architecture and Urban and Rural Planning, because planning and design practices are essentially a research process to find out the optimal solutions. As one type of the practice research, “prototype study” discussed in this issue offers a paradigm for the innovation of knowledge and methodology. Oriented to future challenges and uncertainties, it would help extend the horizon of Landscape Architecture, providing designers and scholars with prospective design insights and flexible working methods.


REFERENCES

[1] Ministry of Education of the People’s Republic of China. (2020, February 20). Notice from the Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Science and Technology on Issuing “Several Opinions on Regulating the Use of Related Indicators of SCI Papers in Colleges and Universities to Establish Rational Evaluation Orientation”. Retrieved from http://www.moe.gov.cn/srcsite/A16/moe_784/202002/t20200223_423334.html

[2] Lu, J. (2008). Interpretation of Marxism Literature. Beijing: China Social Sciences Press.

[3] Zeng, S. (2018). The Great Learning (Q. Liu, Tran.). Nanjing: Phoenix Science Press.


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